Rwanda

Muhuvura, Gahinga and Sabyinyo from Ruhengeri
Muhuvura, Gahinga and Sabyinyo from Ruhengeri

The 2014 update of Guide to Rwanda’s Volcanoes National Park, Home to Critically Endangered Mountain Gorillas in both softcover and Kindle is now available on Amazon.com with a 2017 update in the works.

For more information contact Rick at ricklobello@gmail.com.

Gorilla YouTube

Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund
Virunga National Park
Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Alan Goodall Book Review

Special thanks to Dr. Alan Goodall for writing a nice review on Amazon.com.  Dr. Goodall has a new version of his book “The Wandering Gorillas “Enhanced Edition” available on Itunes.

Here is his review of Guide to Rwanda’s Volcanoes National Park, Home to Critically Endangered Mountains Gorillas:

Going on Safari in Africa is one of the most exciting adventures in the world. But, to get the best out of your ‘journey of discovery’ – you need either an experienced guide or a great guidebook. One of the greatest Safari’s possible is to see the rare mountain gorillas in their own forest home – for here you are in their habitat and not viewing them from a vehicle as you would see many of East Africa’s game.

This guidebook by Rick LoBello is a ‘must have’ and a ‘must read’ reference for everyone who goes on the Safari of a lifetime to see Rwanda’s mountain gorillas in the Volcanoes National Park. It gives you details of all the information you need to plan your trip, get permits, what to bring and where to stay in Rwanda. There is a mine of excellent background information about the Rwandan people, their beautiful country – and, of course, about the forest home of the mountain gorillas, the plants and animals of the park and the gorillas themselves. This has all been extremely well thought out and presented by Lobello – whose own passion for Conservation Education shines through every page. He has done his research for this book – and how tourists to Rwanda will use it – very well indeed. Read this book when planning your trip, refer to it whilst you are on Safari – and use it to help you re-live those memorable experiences when you share them with family and friends back home.

My only (small) criticism of his research is where he has relied on others relating to his comments about Dian Fossey. After working with Dian (in 1970/1971) I completed my own research in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park in Zaire (now Congo). In my Doctoral thesis on 1974, in numerous scientific papers and in my book ‘The Wandering Gorillas’ (1979) I wrote that gorilla tourism should be started in Rwanda – as I had seen created by Adrien Deschryver in Kahuzi. However, Dian Fossey opposed these suggestions and fought bitterly against those who eventually started gorilla tourism in 1979 – through the ‘Mountain Gorilla Project’

On page 17 LoBello states ‘Dian Fossey was not supportive of developing gorilla tourism.’ (which is an understatement!) However, on page 72 he quotes the late Laurent Habiyaremye (former Director of National Parks) as saying that ‘Dian Fossey was also the creator of a selective form of tourism based on the visiting of groups of gorillas accustomed to the presence of humans …….” Since she fought so hard against this whole concept of gorilla tourism – even with Habiyaremye himself – it would be a great pity if the real work of those who actually created the ‘Raison d’etre’ for Lobello’s excellent book was denied – and credited to Dian Fossey! She has her own legacy – and this does not need to include the tourism work she opposed.

That aside – this book should be in the backpack of all gorilla tourists – either in reality or in a Kindle version. I look forward to a similar volume on the Congo parks!

Dr Alan Goodall (Director of Karisoke Research Centre, 1987-1989)

Author of ‘The Wandering Gorillas’ (Arks of the Forest – Kindle Version)

Guidebook Internet Supplement

This Internet supplement has been developed to provide additional information for readers of my book Guide to Rwanda’s Volcanoes National Park, Home to Critically Endangered Mountain Gorillas (2009). The following information includes a complete list of plants known to the park, book notes and book updates.

Guide to Rwandas Volcanoes National Park – APPENDIX

Data compiled by the Karisoke Research Center. Click here to download the book’s Appendix which includes the Volcanoes National Park Plant List. This list and the Book Notes will be added to an expanded edition of this book.

 

BOOK NOTES

1 VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK, LAND OF THE MOUNTAIN GORILLA

10 “The Biodiversity of the Virungas” Wildlife Conservation Society, International Conservation Africa.

11 “The Gorillas of My Grandfather” Last Refuge, LTD, The Gorillas of My Grandfather, DVD, 2004.

12 “Von Beringe served in Hussar Regiment No. 1” Beringe, R. von, Bericht des Hauptmanns von Beringe Aber seine Expedition nach Ruanda. Deutsches Kolonialblatt, 1903

12 “These specimens can be seen in the IMAX film” Mountain Gorilla and Company, IMAX Mountain Gorilla, DVD, 1991.
12 “At the museum Professor Paul Matschie” Gorilla Journal, June 2002.

13 “One hundred and thirty years later” Furniss, Charles, Protected Areas, Geographical, June, pp. 38-45, 2005.

13 “Soon after his trip when he was the first to document motion pictures” Saylor, Christina, The American Museum of Natural History in Africa, 2005.

13. “A Time Magazine news brief” Gorilla Sanctuary, Time Magazine, October, 22, 1928.

14 “In 1919 he visited a number of national parks” Bingaman, John W, Guardians of the Yosemite, 1961.

15 “His wife Mary, decided to bury him in the mountains” Saylor, Christina, The American Museum of Natural History in Africa, 2005.

16 “They lived in an area of the park” Schaller, George B. The Year of the Gorilla. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 7, 1964.

16 “Unfortunately, largely as the result of poaching” Fawcet, Katie, Karisoke Research Center, Personal Communication, June 15, 2005.

16 “The Mountain Gorilla: Ecology and Behavior” Schaller, George B, The Mountain Gorilla: Ecology and Behavior. University of Chicago Press, 1963.

16 “Year of the Gorilla” Schaller, George B, The Year of the Gorilla. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 7, 1964.

17 “Gorilla: Struggle for Survival in the Virungas” Schaller, George B, Gorilla: Struggle for Survival in the Virungas. Aperture Foundation, 1992.

17 “No one who looks into a gorilla’s eyes” Salopek, Paul F, The Mountain Gorillas of Africa. National Geographic, October, 1995.

17 “Gorillas in the Mist” Guber-Peters Company, Gorillas in the Mist, the Story of Dian Fossey, 1988.

17 “No One Loved Gorillas More” Bedoyere, Camilla de la, No One Loved Gorillas More, Dian Fossey Letters from the Mist. National Geographic, 2005.

19 “In a press release” Office of Rwanda Tourism and Parks National, 2007.

20 “World Atlas of Great Apes and their Conservation” International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Atlas of Great Apes and the Conservation, 2005.

21 “Disease – It is also increasingly clear that disease” Great Ape Survival Bulletin, Volume 113, No. 1, September 12, 2005.

21 “For natural sites, their “outstanding universal value” Virunga National Park, UNESCO World Heritage Program, 2005.

22 “In 2005 Uganda was spearheading” Debonnet, Guy, UNESCO, Personal Communication, July 4, 2005.
3 GEOLOGY

40 “Today we know of two sources of the Nile” Kagera River, Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica 2007 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007.

40 “Forming the western side of the Rift Valley” Wildlife Conservation Society, Albertine Rift Programme, 2005.

40 “The rift owes its existence to the uplifting of the earth’s crust” Mittermeir, Russell A. et al, Hotspots Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions. CEMEX, 2004.

40 “According to geologists this all took place” Pleistocene Epoch, Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica 2007 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007.

42 “Similar pieces of the puzzle can be seen” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Africa: Geology and Geography. Columbia University Press, 2006.

43 “A number of government agencies are collecting information” Chaveas, Mike, Gritzner, Jason and Gurrieri, Joe, USDA Forest Service Technical Assistance Trip. Virunga – Bwindi Region: Republic of Rwanda, Republic of Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo. March 4 – 21, 2005.

43 “They have also set up a community catchment system for Bisate” Lilly, Alecia, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, Personal Communication, 2007.

44 “At the top there is a ¾ mile (1.2 km) wide crater” Global Volcanism Program, Karisimbi, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural Hisgtory, 2006.

44 “In the native language of Kinyaruanda” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed, Africa: Geology and Geography. Columbia University Press, 2006.

44 “There is no main trail up the steep mountain” Peakware World Mountain Encylopedia, 2006.

44 “Compared to the rest of the volcanoes in the Virungas, Karisimbi” Karisimbi, Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, 2006.

4 THE PEOPLE OF RWANDA

52 “According to an article in Rwanda’s The New Times” Munyaneza, James and Bigabo, Patrick, Clinton again regrets failure to stop Genocide. The New Times. July 24, 2005.

52 “When First Lady Laura Bush visited ” Loven, Jennifer, Rwanda hopeful, Laura Bush says. Associated Press, July 15, 2005.

53 “UNESCO, the energetic United Nations children’s advocate” U.S. Department of State, International Religious Freedom Report, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, 2005.

58 “President Paul Kagame has made the development of soccer” The Inaugural Kirkpatrick National Lecture featuring: President Paul Kagame, The Norman Transcript, April 27, 2006.

60 “Over the past ten years primary school enrollment” The Inaugural Kirkpatrick National Lecture featuring: President Paul Kagame, The Norman Transcript, April 27, 2006.

60 “Plans are underway to turn the country into Africa’s technology hub” U.S. Tour to Highlight Rwanda’s Bold Approach in Fighting Poverty Using New Technologies, Africa-America Institute, 2005.

61 “The dominant religions” The Inaugural Kirkpatrick National Lecture featuring: President Paul Kagame, The Norman Transcript, April 27, 2006.

5 DIAN FOSSEY

64 “When you realize the value of all life” Bedoyere, Camilla de la, No One Loved Gorillas More. (National Geographic, 2005), 178.

67 “Little did she know that four years later she would find herself continuing Schaller’s research” Schaller, G. B, The Conservation of Gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes. Current Anthropology. I (4), 1960.

67 “In her book, Gorillas in the Mist” Fossey, Dian, Gorillas in the Mist (The University of Chicago Press, 1981), 25.

69 “Following her death Farley Mowat” Mowat, Farley,Woman in the Mists: The Story of Dian Fossey (Warner Books Inc, 1987).

69 “Seventeen years later Campbell published his own book” The Taming of the Gorillas (Minerva Press LTD, 2000).

69 “Another attempt to tell Campbell’s story” National Geographic, The Lost Film of Dian Fossey, 2002.

70 “National Geographic recently published many of Fossey’s letters” Bedoyere, Camilla de la, No One Loved Gorillas More. (National Geographic, 2005).

70 “Carr also made a point of saying that Fossey” Neinaber, Georgianne, An Interview with Rosamond Carr, International Primate Protection League Newsletter, December, 2005.

70 “Her autobiography” Halsey Carr, Rosamond, Land of a Thousand Hills. (Viking Penguin, 1999).

71 “The following communication, released and unclassified by the United States Department of State” Freedom of Information Request to Georgianne Nienaber, 2006. Relayed to the author from Dr. Shirley McGreal, International Primate Protection League, May 18, 2007.

75 “Her story is too precious not to include here in its entirety” Chidester, Judy A, Getting to know a gorilla…Charlie was a girl and real cuddly. (Department of State Newsletter, April, 1980).
6 THE MOUNTAIN GORILLAS

89 “In a world older and more complete than ours” Beston, Henry A, The Outermost House. (Doubleday and Doran, 1928).

93 “A second or third subspecies, the Grauers gorilla” International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), World Atlas of Great Apes and the Conservation, 2005.

93 “Currently the estimated captive population in major zoos” International Species Information System, June 2007.

95 “In the Virungas 40% of the groups” The Mountain Gorilla, Ecology, Behavour and Conservation PowerPoint, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International and ORTPN, 2005.

95 “Adult females also have a hierarchy” The Mountain Gorilla, Ecology, Behavour and Conservation PowerPoint, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International and ORTPN, 2005.

96 “All individuals chestbeat” Fawcett, Katie, Personal Communication, September 19, 2005.

97 “Sadly, only about 25% of infants” The Mountain Gorilla, Ecology, Behavour and Conservation PowerPoint, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International and ORTPN, 2005.

97 “Unlike females, males cannot transfer” The Mountain Gorilla, Ecology, Behavour and Conservation PowerPoint, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International and ORTPN, 2005.

99 “As of June 2007 Hirwa” Nzabonimana, Oliver, Personal Communication, February 19 and June 18, 2007.

99 “The DFGFI website at http://www.gorillafund.org has a helpful gorilla vocalization chart” Stoinski, Tara, Field News, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund, March, 2006.

101 “This quiet and frequent call is given throughout the day” International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), World Atlas of Great Apes and the Conservation, 2005.

102 “The long call is a series of powerful hoots” International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), World Atlas of Great Apes and the Conservation, 2005.

102 “Six basic facial expressions have been described” D. Brann Union Institute, Abstract of the 24, Annual Meet ing of the American Society of Primatologists, August, 2001.

102 “Displays are most frequently made by silverbacks” The Mountain Gorilla, Ecology, Behavior and Conservation PowerPoint, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International and ORTPN, 2005.

104 “It has been said that the gorillas literally live in a salad bowl” Weber, Bill, and Amy Vedder, In the Kingdom of Gorillas: Fragile Species in a Dangerous Land, (Touchstone Books, 2002).

104 “Mountain gorillas have been observed eating non-plant items” International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), World Atlas of Great Apes and the Conservation, 2005.

104 “The following species are some of the most important staple food plants” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International. Gorilla Staple Food Database, 2007.

108 “According to the report there were many interactions between the males” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International Field News. Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, October, 2004.

109 “That census revealed a 17 % increase” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, Virunga Volcanoes Range Mountain Gorilla Census, 2003.

110 “Most of the names below were picked by DFGFI staff” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, Field News, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, January, 2000.

111 “It was not until Bill and Amy Vedder published their book In the Kingdom of Gorillas” Weber, Bill, and Amy Vedder, In the Kingdom of Gorillas: Fragile Species in a Dangerous Land, (Touchstone Books, 2002).

112 “the reason” for her vocalizations; Furaha or “joy” Weber, Bill, and Amy Vedder, In the Kingdom of Gorillas: Fragile Species in a Dangerous Land, (Touchstone Books, 2002).

113 “Nyakarima, a lone silverback who was forced to leave Group 13 in 2003” Nzabonimana, Olivier. Personal Communication, June 3, 2007.

113 “This group was featured in the Saving a Species: Gorillas on the Brink” Animal Planet, Saving a Species: Gorillas on the Brink. DVD, 2008.

116 “The following information summarizes what happened” Stoinski, Tara, Personal Communication, February, Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund, 2007.
7 PLANTS OF VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK

121 “A biological survey” Owiunji, I et al, Biological Survey of Virunga Volcanoes, Wildlife Conservation Society Report, 2005.

122 “The Virungas have been carefully studied over the years” African Wildlife Foundation, Conservation of Afro-Montane Forest and Mountain Gorillas in a Landscape Context, 2005.

122 “The gorillas prefer the lower elevations” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, Virunga Volcanoes Range Mountain Gorilla Census, 2003.

122 “At Volcanoes National Park, a relic band of mixed forest” Owiunji, I et al, Biological Survey of Virunga Volcanoes, Wildlife Conservation Society Report, 2005.

122 “Larger expanses of this important zone to mountain are still intact in the DRC” African Wildlife Foundation, Conservation of Afro-Montane Forest and Mountain Gorillas in a Landscape Context, 2005.

123 “There are 1,600 known species of bamboo around the world” Furniss, Charlie, The Wonder Plant with an Uncertain Future. Geographical, August, 2004.

125 “This list will no doubt grow over time as researchers continue their work” Owiunji, I et al, Biological Survey of Virunga Volcanoes, Wildlife Conservation Society Report, 2005.

126 “Africa researchers have identified 118 species of gorilla food plants” Cousins, Don and Huffman, Michael A., Medicinal Properties in the Diet of Gorillas: An Ethno- Pharmacological Evaluation, African Study Monographs, 23(2): 65-89, June 2002.

126 “At Volcanoes National Park, 31 of the 113 known species” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund Gorilla Foods Database, 2007.

128 “Along with other exotic trees like cypress and pine” Lejju, J. B., Oryem-Origa, H. and Kasese, J. M, East African Wild Life Society, African Journal of Ecology 39, 65-73, 2001.

129 “These twisted gnarled trees” Schaller, George and Michael Nichols. Gorilla Struggle for Survival in the Virungas. (Aperture Books, 1989).

130 “Gorillas will use the hollowed openings” Schaller, George and Michael Nichols. Gorilla Struggle for Survival in the Virungas. (Aperture Books, 1989).

130 “Hagenia is a well known treatment in East Africa” Minja, M. M. J. The Maasai Wonder Plants. Paper presented at the People and Plants training workshop, Tropical Pesticides Training Institute, Arusha, Tanzania, 1999.

131 “Trees reach up to 39 feet (12 m)” Kalina, J., Mgahinga Gorilla National Park: Reference for Management. Berichdas Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife, Kampala, Uganda, 1993.

131 “The tree is often host to Englerina woodfordioides” Fossey, Dian, Gorillas in the Mist. (The University of Chicago Press, 1981).

132 “Fossey found many clumps of broken Vernonia stumps” Fossey, Dian, Gorillas in the Mist. (The University of Chicago Press, 1981).

132 “There is very little else for the gorillas to eat in this zone” Cousins, Don and Huffman, Michael A., Medicinal Properties in the Diet of Gorillas: An Ethno- Pharmacological Evaluation, African Study Monographs, 23(2): 65-89, June 2002.

135 “They will also pull up the root” Schaller, George B., The Mountain Gorilla: Ecology and Behavior. (University of Chicago Press, 1963).

137 “Fossey reported that 22,000 acres” Fossey, Dian, Gorillas in the Mist. (The University of Chicago Press, 1981).

8 BIRDS OF VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK

139 “Nearly 1,500 species of resident birds” Africa. Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica 2007 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007.

139 “In February of 2004 a bird survey” Owiunji, I et al, Biological Survey of Virunga Volcanoes, Wildlife Conservation Society Report, 2005.

140 “At Volcanoes National Park researchers have thus far identified 184 species” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International Plant and Animal Database, 2005, 2007.

140 “The swamp is not protected” International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Redlist.org. Accessed June 1, 2007.

140 “This beautiful falcon is losing its breeding habitat” International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Redlist.org. Accessed June 1, 2007.

140 “It inhabits the understory of closed-canopy moist forest” International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Redlist.org. Accessed June 1, 2007.

141 “Careful monitoring of the population is important” International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Redlist.org. Accessed June 1, 2007.

141 “Turacos spend all of their time in trees” Turaco. Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica 2007 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007.

142 “Birds of East Africa” Stevenson, Terry and John Fanshawe. The Birds of East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi. (Princeton Field Guides, 2001).

142 “Karisoke Research Center’s wildlife database” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International Plant and Animal Database, 2005, 2007.

9 MAMMALS OF VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK

156 “Biological surveys of the Virungas conducted in 2003 and 2004” Owiunji, I et al, Biological Survey of Virunga Volcanoes, Wildlife Conservation Society Report, 2005. The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International. Virunga Volcanoes Range Mountain Gorilla Census, 2003.

157 “Most records of this beautiful striped ungulate” World Wildlife Fund. Rare Okapi Sighted in Eastern Congo Park. Press Release, June 8, 2006.

159 “Park staff and soldiers tried to assist the people” Kalinijabo, John. Personal Communication. June 20, 2007.

159 “Elephants hate chili and can be controlled” Wildlife Conservation Society. ww.wcs.org/international/africa/africanelephants/ elephantpepper. Accessed June 25, 2007.

159 “They are colorful, medium sized primates” Nowak, Ronald M. Walker’s Mammals of the World Fifth Edition, Volume I and II, (The John Hopkins University Press, 1991).

160 “Park researchers are working on developing census techniques” Karisoke Research Center PowerPoint Report. The Golden Monkey, Ecology, and Behavior, 2005.

161 “All across Africa biologists have described 106 species” White-toothed shrew (genus Crocidura). Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica 2007 Deluxe Edition. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007.

161 “Four species of bushbabies are known to the Virungas” Plumptre A. J. et al. The Biodiversity of the Albertine Rift, Albertine Rift Technical Report Series, Number 3, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2003.

162 “Fossey had a pet blue monkey named Kima” Fossey, Dian. Gorillas in the Mist. (The University of Chicago Press, 1981).

162 “This species does not appear on the Karisoke Database” Alden, Estes, Schlitter and McBride. National Audubon Society Field Guide to African Wildlife. (Alfred A. Knopf, 1995).

163 “It has been reported at Mgahinga” Mgahinga Gorilla National Park. UNESCO. http://www.whc.unesco.org, Accessed June 30, 2007.

162 “Pouched rats are nocturnal” Nowak, Ronald M. Walker’s Mammals of the World Fifth Edition, Volume I and II, (The John Hopkins University Press, 1991).

163 “Earlier that year they found leopard scat” Oliver, William L. R. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos, Chapter 4. IUCN, 1993.

163 “Karisoke staff reported a large and active population of hyenas” Oliver, William L. R. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos, Chapter 4. IUCN, 1993.

163 “Servals have been reported in the park” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International Plant and Animal Database, 2005, 2007.

163 “These small spotted cats with long legs” Mgahinga Gorilla National Park. UNESCO. http://www.whc.unesco.org, Accessed June 30, 2007.

163 “This small cat has been reported from the Bamboo Zone” Mgahinga Gorilla National Park. UNESCO. http://www.unesco.org, Accessed June 30, 2007.

163 “Because the population size across its entire range” International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Redlist.org, 2007.

164 “This species of bush pig is widespread and abundant” Oliver, William L. R. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos, Chapter 4. IUCN, 1993.

164 “Fossey reported how her staff remembered bush pigs” Fossey, Dian. Gorillas in the Mist. (The University of Chicago Press, 1981).

164 “During her first few months in the Virungas Fossey” Fossey, Dian. Gorillas in the Mist. (The University of Chicago Press, 1981).

164 “They are rarely seen in the park, but are found in dense forests” Nowak, Ronald M. Walker’s Mammals of the World Fifth Edition, Volume I and II, (The John Hopkins University Press, 1991).

165 “Fossey heard tree hyraxes” Fossey, Dian. Gorillas in the Mist. (The University of Chicago Press, 1981).

165 “Bill Weber described the sounds of tree hyraxes” Weber, Bill, and Amy Vedder. In the Kingdom of Gorillas: Fragile Species in a Dangerous Land, Touchstone Books, 2002

165 “They forage in the upper forest canopy” Nowak, Ronald M. Walker’s Mammals of the World Fifth Edition, Volume I and II, (The John Hopkins University Press, 1991).

10 OTHER ANIMALS OF VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK

169 “With only 19 species of reptiles known to the park” Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International Plant and Animal Database, 2005, 2007.

169 “In contrast, the much larger Virunga National Park” Owiunji, I et al, Biological Survey of Virunga Volcanoes, Wildlife Conservation Society Report, 2005.

169 “They have hornlike scales at the tip of the snout” Areste, Manual and Rafael Cebrian. Snakes of the World. (Sterling Publishing Company, 2003).

170 “According to the IUCN amphibians” International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Redlist.org, 2007.

170 “All individuals are known from fewer than five locations” International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Redlist.org, 2007.

171 “The country is currently working at developing its fish industry” Rwanda Gateway, Accessed July 21, 2007.

171 “Lake Kivu to the south” Plumptre A. J. et al. The Biodiversity of the Albertine Rift, Albertine Rift Technical Report Series, Number 3, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2003.

171 “At Lake Bulera” Republic of Rwanda, Ministry Lands, Resettlement and Environment. National Strategy and Action Plan for the Conservation of Biodiversity in Rwanda, 2003.

172 “even though nearly 100,000 species of insects” Miller, Scott E. Lucie M. Rogo. Challenges and opportunities in understanding and utilization of African insect diversity Cimbebasia 17: pp. 197-218, 2001.

172 “To date we know of 117 species of endemic butterflies” Plumptre A. J. et al. The Biodiversity of the Albertine Rift, Albertine Rift Technical Report Series, Number 3, Wildlife Conservation Society, 2003.

172 “With a wingspan of nearly 10 inches” Africa Museum. Papilio antimachus DRURY. , 2007.

173 “You can also help protect yourself by wearing medium” MD Travel Health. http://www.mdtravelhealth.com/destinations/africa. Accessed July 24, 2007.

174 “but will occasionally eat ants” Fossey, Dian. Gorillas in the Mist. (The University of Chicago Press, 1981).

11 EXPLORING MORE OF THE PARK AND BEYOND THE VIRUNGAS
178 “Katie Fawcett, who is currently the Director of the DFGFI Karisoke Research Center” Kinzer, Stephen, A Thousand Hills, (John Wiley and Sons, 2008).

184 “CNN reported a humorous story about how baboons” Associated Press Report. Rwanda game lodge reopens to human guests. CNN.com Travel Section, February 10, 2004.

184 “For those who like roughing it the park offers camping opportunities” Wildlife Conservation Society. Akagera National Park. From http://www.wcs.org/ WCSAkagera National Park.mht. Accessed June 1, 2007.

12 SECURING THE PARK’S FUTURE

189 “The 2003 study found that 50% of all gorilla groups” International Gorilla Conservation Program et al. Unpublished Report. Virunga Volcanoes Range, Mountain gorilla census, 2003, 2005.

190 “The rising number of gorillas slaughtered” UNESCO. Director-General voices concern over fate of Virunga National Park gorillas. Press Release, August 3, 2007.

192 “A Scientific Technical Steering Committee” Childs, Simon. Rehabilitating Eastern Gorillas. Gorilla Journal 34, June, 2007.

193 “Anyone with an interest in more information about the conservation of mountain gorillas” International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Atlas of Great Apes and the Conservation, 2005.

194 “The United Nations has its largest peacekeeping force in the world in the Congo” BarackObama.com, June 9, 2007.

194 “All of this reflects one simple reality” McCrummen, Stephanie. For Tutsis of Eastern Congo, Protector, Exploiter or Both? Washington Post Foreign Service. pp A01 August 6, 2007.

198 “Veterinarians suspected measles” Sholley, Craig. Guerillas in the Midst of Gorillas. http://www.iwrc-online.org/with/gorillas.htm. Accessed August 2, 2007.

199 “A British and Uganda Scientist report in 2006” American Geophysical Union University College Press Release. Fabled Equatorial African Icecaps to Disappear. May 15, 2006.

200 “We are destroying or wiping out species” Layzer, Jim. Sending surrogates to the rescue. Endangered Species Bulletin March/April, 2003.